Elaboracion del pulque

Muchos han sido quienes preguntan "¿Como se hace el pulque?". Bueno, aqui les daremos una introducción de cómo se hace.

Los antiguos mexicanos tenían a Mayaguel como la divinidad del pulque, éste tuvo una gran importancia en la vida de los indígenas del centro de México “pues fungió como bebida ritual y como ofrenda ceremonial para los dioses”. El pulque se consumía en festividades y banquetes, aunque las borracheras estaban sumamente penadas fuera de ese contexto, baste recordar tan sólo la leyenda de Quetzalcoatl y su embriaguez vergonzante que le obligó a huir de Tula. En los tiempos míticos “los hombres poseían los granos que garantizaban su sustento, /pero/ carecían de otros productos que les proporcionaran placer y gozo. Los dioses acordaron darles algo que los hiciera propensos al canto y al baile. Quetzalcoatl decidió que una bebida intoxicante brindaría placer a sus vidas y recordó entonces a Mayahuel, hermosa joven diosa del maguey”. La abuela de la diosa era una tzitzimitl, es decir, un demonio celestial de la oscuridad. Quetzalcoatl convenció a Mayahuel de irse con él a la tierra, allí los dos se reunieron en un frondoso árbol y tomaron la forma de rama cada uno. Desafortunadamente, la abuela de Mayahuel, al percatarse de su huida, convocó a las demás tzitzimime para que la ayudasen a encontrar a la diosa. Cuando la localizaron inmediatamente destruyeron el árbol y la rama en donde estaba oculta Mayahuel fue quebrada; así su abuela despedazó a Mayahuel y dio las partes de su cuerpo a las otras tzitzimime, ellas la devoraron y dejaron sus huesos roídos. Cuando Quetzalcotal, cuya rama no había sido rota, recuperó su aspecto, recogió los huesos y los enterró con grandes muestras de tristeza. De ellos surgió “la primera planta del maguey, milagrosa fuente del pulque.”[1]



En Tacubaya, pueblo de indios cercano a la Ciudad de México y que formó parte del Marquesado de Hernán Cortés durante el período colonial, se producía pulque desde la época prehispánica, lo cual determinó profundamente la vida religiosa de la localidad. Investigaciones recientes vinculan el nombre de algunos barrios de Tacubaya con el de estas divinidades. A su vez, fray Bernardino de Sahagún, en su obra Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España, nos proporciona la lista de las deidades del pulque, a saber, Tezcatzóncatl, Yiauhtécatl, Acolhua, Tlilhua, Pantécatl, Izquitécatl, Tultécatl, Papáztac, Tlaltecayohua, Umetuchtli (Ometochtli), Tepuztécatl, Chimalpanécatl y Colhuatzíncatl (p. 63). Llaman la atención los nombres de los barrios Texcacoac y Culhuacatzinco, pues se podrían relacionar con el culto a Tezcatzóncatl y a Colhuatzíncatl respectivamente. [2]



Asimismo, Sahagún hace referencia a los celebraciones religiosas celebradas en Tacubaya, pero como bien señalan Rivas y Durán, “lo interesante de estas ceremonias lo constituye el señalamiento de sitios específicos dentro del paisaje donde se celebraba a las deidades del agua y los mantenimientos, incluyendo a las del pulque... Por otro lado, el tocado que lleva el Yiauhqueme, es de plumas de garza y penacho de quetzal, como el de las deidades del pulque y los mantenimientos.”[3]



Durante el virreinato, la bebida perdió su carácter sagrado y dejó de consumirse con un sentido espiritual. Esto no significa que hayan desaparecido los magueyales[4] y que el pulque se haya dejado de producir en Tacubaya, lo que resulta es una transformación en la manera de apropiarse de estos recursos a nivel simbólico, ya no en una relación de paisaje y ritualidad, sino de paisaje y economía que desvirtuaba su sentido original. El pulque se convirtió en una bebida sumamente apreciada y comercialmente redituable para los indios y españoles. Así, el cultivo de los magueyes y la producción de la bebida blanca (pulque) fueron actividades económicas importantes de los indios de Tacubaya durante el período colonial. Inclusive se exigía una calidad en cuanto a su elaboración, tal y como lo demuestra este documento del Ramo Indios del Archivo General de la Nación de México, en el cual el virrey don Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, conde de Monterrey, para resolver un pleito entre los distintos barrios de Tacubaya, dispuso que:



Por cuanto los indios e indias de la villa de Tacubaya de los barrios de Aguatecpan, Guizilan, Colguacacingo, Xochiguacan, Nonogualco y Otzonco me han hecho relación que estando permitido a todos los indios e indias de la dicha villa por licencia expresa el beneficiar la miel blanca que sacan de sus magueyes echándole la raíz que suelen para que no se dañe con calidad de que dé la bebida blanca y cada persona beneficie hasta dos o tres reales de ella, pretenden los de los barrios de Tzcacoac, de Quisquinaguac y Tlacoteco usar de ella por sí solos impidiendo a los de los dichos barrios el gozar del efecto de la dicha licencia la cual había de ser general y no particular, pidiendo que para que cesasen pleitos y diferencias les confirmase la licencia que tenían de don Juan Altamirano que ante mí presentaron, por tanto, por la presente doy licencia a los dichos indios e indias para que por tiempo de cuatro meses primeros siguientes que corran y se cuenten desde el día de la data de esta puedan beneficiar cada uno de los dichos indios de los dichos barrios Aguatecpan, Guitzilan, Colguacacingo, Xochiguacan, Nonogualco y Otzonco hasta tres tomines de la dicha miel blanca de maguey con la raíz que se le echa para que no se dañe de suerte que quede la bebida blanca y no amarilla, lo cual mando que durante el dicho tiempo no se lo impida justicia ni persona alguna. Hecho en México a veintisiete de noviembre de mil y quinientos y noventa y seis años el conde de Monterrey[5] (Ramo Indios, Vol. 6.1, Exp. 1166, foja 321 reverso, AGN).



Esta tradición de producir pulque y de procurar que cumpla con ciertas normas de calidad se observa en este testimonio recogido por Yolanda Lastra de Suárez en San Jerónimo Amanalco, Municipio de Tetzcoco, Estado de México en octubre de 1974: “Luego ya se trae el aguamiel. Si no hay semilla se compra y si alguien sabe componerla la compone en su casa hace pulque para semilla. Cuando no hay semilla se compra donde haya bueno. Luego semilla para asemillar el aguamiel. Cada tres días se lava el barril para que no se descomponga el pulque. El tanto que se le echa de aguamiel ese tanto de pulque tiene que haber para que no se endulce para que esté bueno el pulque para que no esté feo sólo bueno.”[6]



Por su parte, Francisco R. Calderón sostiene que: “Mucho se ha dicho que el consumo del pulque aumentó entre los indios sobre el ya excesivo que hacían de él antes de la Conquista, pero esto no es posible comprobarlo; lo que sí consta es que su ingestión provocaba escándalos y alborotos desde los primeros días de la colonia. Como ésta es una bebida de fácil descomposición, le agregaban entonces cierta raíz (?) /sic/ que la hacía más duradera y al mismo tiempo más embriagante, pero de distinta manera: el pulque sólo producía sopor, mientras que con el aditivo de la raíz los que lo bebían se ponían furiosos, gritaban y aullaban, se excitaban carnalmente, reñían y se mataban. Estos excesos provocaron una cédula real por la que se inquiría la opinión de la audiencia gobernadora y del obispo Zumárraga sobre la conveniencia de prohibir el cultivo de la raíz de marras o en todo caso que se agregara al pulque. En nada quedó esta gestión y sólo hasta 1635 se prohibió bajo pena de duros castigos la venta de pulque amarillo corrupto ‘y otras (bebidas) nocivas’; al poco tiempo, en 1642 el virrey obispo Palafox y Mendoza aumentó los castigos a los transgresores y señaló lugares, llamados puestos, en donde únicamente había de venderse el pulque, el cual había de ser blanco”, más adelante, con el virrey conde de Alba de Liste (1650-1653), observando que el pulque era menos embriagante si se consumía solo y puro y además tenía virtudes salutíferas, “el pulque dejó de ser perseguido para pasar a ser reglamentado.”[7]



El pulque se convirtió en una actividad económica muy redituable. Aparte del pleito ya citado entre los propios indios de los barrios de Tacubaya, también se presentaron dificultades entre indígenas y mulatos derivadas del cultivo del maguey, la producción del pulque y su venta. Así, a principios de 1713 llegaron al virrey don Fernando de Alencastre, duque de Linares, las quejas de los indios principales del barrio de Santa María Nonoalco acerca de ciertas "casillas y magueyes y tierra" que indebidamente usufructuaban unos mulatos, enfatizando:



los gravísimos daños y perjuicios que de la residencia de dichos mulatos en dicho barrio se nos siguen y que es efuxio (sic)[8] el de decir ser suya la casilla y magueyes cuando no son originarios de dicho barrio, ni casados el conatural ni lo han sido, que era por donde podían representar algún derecho, sino advenedizos sin tratos en él y que antes debieran pagarnos así el aprovechamiento de la casilla como las utilidades que han tenido con los magueyes, y que hay algunos naturales en dicho barrio que ni casa ni un pedazo de tierra tienen en qué buscar para pagar los reales tributos de Su Majestad y demás obvenciones, debiéndolas tener y que no es justo el que estando como está prohibido el que en pueblos de indios, /radiquen/ negros, mulatos ni mestizos, los susodichos se toleren con tantos perjuicios (Ramo Indios, Vol. 38, Exp. 122, foja 158 reverso y foja 159 anverso, AGN).



En cuya atención, los naturales pedían al virrey que mandara sacar a los mulatos del barrio de Nonoalco. El virrey giró instrucciones al teniente de corregidor de la villa de Tacubaya para que se encargara de que los mulatos justificaran sus propiedades con títulos. El teniente informó al virrey que las referidas tierras, casillas y magueyes pertenecían legalmente a los mulatos, y que los indios debían desagraviarlos económicamente, pero éstos elevaron una instancia ante el virrey presentando nuevas evidencias. Firmaban la solicitud varios principales, miembros del cabildo indígena, don Matías de Santiago, gobernador de Tacubaya, don Lucas de Santiago, regidor, y los alcaldes Juan Nicolás y Matías Bernabé. Desafortunadamente, el expediente está incompleto y no me fue posible averiguar cómo terminó este caso.



En Tacubaya, como ya se mencionó, durante el período colonial se cuidaba el procedimiento en la elaboración de tan preciada bebida, ésta era vendida en las “casillas de pulque”. En ese entonces y a lo largo del siglo XIX, el pulque formaba parte de la vida cotidiana de la gente del centro de México, particularmente, servía como bebida digestiva luego de la comida. Si bien fueron famosas las haciendas productoras de pulque de los llanos de Apan, Hidalgo, no por ello hay que olvidar a Tacubaya y el pulque que le dio una especial fisonomía con sus múltiples expendios llamados pulquerías. Durante buena parte del siglo XX, las pulquerías de Tacubaya fueron famosas por las variedades de pulque que allí se vendían. Entre sus dueños se contaba a Conrado Zepeda, quien, según Eduardo Jiménez Sandoval, era considerado como el “manda más de los pulqueros”.[9] De cualquier modo, es muy seguro que en esa centuria ya no se produjera pulque en Tacubaya debido a la urbanización que sufrió esta zona y que acabó con los campos de cultivo.[10] Sin embargo, el pulque traído de otras regiones se siguió vendiendo en Tacubaya y sus pulquerías siguieron siendo un punto de referencia para los aficionados a esta bebida. Desafortunadamente, el pulque ya no es consumido de forma masiva, actualmente se considera muy “popular” y ya no se bebe en las casas luego de las comidas. Es probable que en algunos años se pierda por completo esta tradición tan mexicana.

Fuente acá

80 comentarios:

Anónimo dijo...

chido don palabras, se esta usted refinando, nada mas que le falta hacer una descripcion mas detallada de como se hace el procedimiento en el corte da la penca y la curada del maguey pa que nos vayamos preparando teoricamente en eldivino gusto del elixir de nuestros dioses (indígenas)por supuesto.

Anónimo dijo...

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Anónimo dijo...

pues esta chido pero como se hace men...

Anónimo dijo...

no mames como se hace pendejo chingas a tu madre

Tío Chueco dijo...

Muy bueno el blog, le daré un vistazo de vez en vez, te lo dice un descendiente de hombres de maguey, y habitual consumidor espiritual de Pulque (del bueno).

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Hola a todos, hace tiempo visito el foro pero nunca habia participado.

Basicamente solo queria presentarme!


Nos vemos

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